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Synthesis Method and Use of Oleic Acid

Sep. 27, 2020
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Oleic AcidOleic Acid is a monounsaturated Omega-9 fatty acid, which exists in animals and plants. The chemical formula is C₁₈H₃₄O₂ (or CH₃(CH₂)₇CH=CH(CH₂)₇COOH). Hydrogenation of oleic acid to obtain stearic acid. The double bond trans isomer of oleic acid is called elaidic acid.

Pure oleic acid is a colorless oily liquid with the odor of animal oil or vegetable oil. The color gradually darkens in the air after long-term exposure. Industrial products are yellow to red oily liquid with the odor of lard.

Pure oleic acid has a melting point of 13.4°C, a boiling point of 350-360°C, a relative density of 0.8935 (20/4°C), a vapor pressure of 52 mm Hg (37 °C), a refractive index of 1.4585-1.4605, and a flash point of 189°C. Flammable, incompatible with strong oxidants and aluminum.

1. Oleic acid, together with other fatty acids, exists in all animal and vegetable oils in the form of glycerides. In animal fats, oleic acid accounts for about 40-50% of fatty acids. The content of vegetable oil varies greatly. The content of tea oil can be as high as 83%, that of peanut oil is 54%, and that of coconut oil is only 5-6%. Oleic acid is a co-product in the production of stearic acid. Industrial stearic acid and industrial oleic acid actually contain other fatty acids. There are many fat raw materials used in the production of stearic acid and oleic acid. The industry generally uses mixed fat formulations such as 30% melted tallow, 10% melted lard, 40% bone fat and 20% cottonseed oil. In the mixed fatty acid obtained by refining and hydrolyzing oil, the melting point of saturated acid and unsaturated acid is quite different. The yield of stearic acid and oleic acid is mainly determined by the oleyl ester formula. Generally, cold pressing can obtain 30-50% oleic acid and 50-70% stearic acid. It is hydrolyzed with animal and vegetable oils and emulsified liquid at 105℃, purified with stearic acid, and removed stearic acid by one-time squeezing to separate crude oleic acid, which is dehydrated, distilled and frozen. After the second pressing, the palmitic acid is removed, and finally the finished product is refined by dehydration. This method can co-produce stearic acid, and when stearic acid is made from oleic acid, it can also co-produce oleic acid. Raw material consumption quota: 1950kg/t of animal and vegetable oils and 210kg/t of sulfuric acid (98%).

2. Use fats containing a certain amount of oleic acid as raw materials, such as tallow, lard, palm oil, to decompose fatty acids, dissolve and cool the fatty acids with a solvent, and remove solid fatty acids to obtain crude oleic acid. Then dissolve it with a solvent and cool down at low temperature to crystallize oleic acid.

Refining method: Recrystallize with acetone at -10~ -60°C to separate oleic acid from linoleic acid and saturated fatty acid. The remaining saturated fatty acids can be precipitated by forming lead salts in ethanol, and then refined by distillation. Generally, commercially available oleic acid can be crystallized with acetone at -11°C, and the crystals can be ground and vacuum dried for one week. Other refining methods include: converting oleic acid into methyl oleate, hydrolyzing the ester after fractional distillation, and recrystallizing the free acid with acetone at -40~ -45°C. Use 12 mL of acetone per 1 g of oleic acid. There is also a method of stepwise crystallization of the oleic acid melt, and then molecular distillation refining at a pressure of 133.3 MPa.

3. It can be used as a lubricating agent for drilling mud. The sodium or potassium salt of oleic acid is one of the ingredients of soap. Pure sodium oleate has good detergency, can be used as emulsifier and other surfactants, and can be used to treat gallstones. Other metal salts of oleic acid can also be used in waterproof fabrics, lubricants, polishing agents, etc. The barium salt can be used as a rodenticide. 3. For biochemical analysis and gas chromatography standard materials. 4. Used to prepare plastic plasticizers, pesticide emulsifiers, lubricants, ointments, ore flotation agents, etc. 5. Used as a raw material for detergents, fatty acid soap bases, cosmetics, chemical fiber oils, and textile auxiliaries. Refined oleic acid is used as raw material for plastics, engineering plastics, nylon 8 and nylon 9. 6. Used for baking food, meat products and condiments.

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